Your height depends on a lot of factors, not the least of which is your age. If you are older than about 21 years, then the answer is no. You have reached your full adult height and no amount of protein will allow for further height.
However, if you're younger, then protein does play a role in providing the building blocks for growth. Aside from genetics, your body needs protein for bone and muscle growth as well as all cells within your body. Adequate nutrition during childhood allows for your body to grow to its full height potential.
That all said, you can stand taller with protein powder! Though this does not occur through growth but with physical training to strengthen your muscles including your neck, back, buttocks, and shoulders. This improves posture and apparent height. Protein powder can be an aid to this process in combination with training, although you will not see substantial gains in overall height.